Our Stolen Futurea book by Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers
 
 

 

This file holds archives of new developments during 2000. Other archives hold material from 1999 and 2001. New Developments contains the most recent materials. For a broad overview of the scientific trends since OSF was published, see Broad Trends. And for pointers to a host of important new research results, organized by topic, visit Recent Important Studies.

 

27 December. Janet Raloff writes in Science News about feminization of Chinook salmon in the Columbia River. She interviews the lead author of the paper in Environmental Health Perspectives that reported the phenomenon: "This is clearly abnormal, notes James J. Nagler, a fish reproductive biologist at the University of Idaho in Moscow." Raloff reports that the "trigger for the chinook's sex reversal remains a mystery. Though estrogen-mimicking pesticides running off upstream croplands could play a role, Nagler has found no reports of high concentrations in the Columbia River near Hanford Reach. Another suspect, he notes, is the daily drop of several degrees in water temperature in response to a nightly release of cold water from hydroelectric dams. For several fish species, including another salmon, temperature variation has induced gender changes in laboratory studies." More on the study...


26 December. Writing in the Chicago Tribune, Karen Branden examines the controversy that has arisen because of discoveries by Dr. Frederick vom Saal (University of Missouri) that one common endocrine disrupting compound, bisphenol A, has measurable effects in laboratory experiments at levels thousands of times lower than previously thought. She reports on the National Toxicology Program's review of "low dose effects," interviews industry critics of vom Saal as well as Chandra Gupta, an academic scientist who independently confirmed vom Saal's findings. Branden's article gets to the heart of the importance of these results: that these low dose effects challenge the adequacy of countless toxicity tests undertaken to establish toxicity standards.


24 December. The New York Times Magazine examines changes in the age of puberty of American girls, reporting on Marcia Herman-Gidden's finding that girls appear to be maturing more rapidly, and then examining some of the possible causes. Among those mentioned: increasing obesity, changes in the relationship between father and growing daughter, and contamination. While the author does mention contamination, she seems unaware of the evidence from epidemiological studies suggesting links to contamination and the scientific literature showing that contaminants change maturation rates in experimental animals. This literature is now quite substantial. More...


21 December. Research in New York State around Lake Ontario reveals an association between fish consumption and the likelihood of pregnancy. Women who eat more contaminated fish are less likely to conceive during a given menstrual cycle than those who eat less contaminated fish. More...


20 December. Chemical companies that created the world's largest DDT dump will pay $73 million to help restore the ocean environment off Southern California, according to a court settlement filed Tuesday. LA Times story...


20 December. The LA Times reports on new research that has revealed dramatic feminization of an endangered run of Chinook salmon in the Columbia River. LA Times story. More on the science...


18 December. In a new study of girls exposed in the womb and through breastfeeding to PBBs because of a food contamination incident in Michigan in 1973, scientists report that elevated PBB levels are associated with earlier menstruation and early pubic hair appearance, but not early breast development. More...


18 December. Scientific American reports on a recent meeting at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government examining the merits and meaning of the Precautionary Principle: "When an activity raises threats to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically."


17 December. The New York Times reports that the European Union's "Scientific Committee for Food" has identified contaminated fish as a major source of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in the European diet. A new report (available as a .pdf file) from the Committee finds "fish oil and fish meal have the highest levels of these chemicals." Quoted in the Times, a spokesperson for the EU, Johan Reyniers, says "Europeans can eat fish in moderation, but "if you eat fish every day, you are likely to have a problem."


17 December. Sweden's Prime Minister, Göran Persson, is preparing to propose new precautionary policies to the Swedish Parliament early in 2001 which will reverse the burden of proof on persistent, bioaccumulative compounds. More...


15 December. Writing in Environmental Health Perspectives, the journal of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, scientists report widespread feminization of an endangered fish, the chinook salmon, breeding in central Washington on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Of females sampled on spawning grounds, 84% are chromosomal males. Two plausible causes: higher water temperatures or endocrine disruption. More...


12 December. In a classic case of misleading writing published as an op-ed in the Wall Street Journal, GE apologist Elizabeth Whelan wrongly claims that current science absolves PCBs of health risks. The timing of her op-ed no doubt is linked to the multi-million dollar effort by GE to reverse an EPA decision compelling it to spend hundreds of millions of dollars to clean up PCBs the corporation spilled into the Hudson River. More...


10 December. UN negotiations to eliminate 12 persistent organic pollutants ended successfully in Johannesburg, South Africa. Key provisions allow for financial aid to developing countries, the use of precautionary considerations in adding new chemicals, and the commitment to eliminate dioxin. The UN POPs convention will be signed at a ministerial meeting in Stockholm in May. More...


29 November. A long-term study of children in the Netherlands finds that background levels of PCB exposure experienced in the womb leads to higher risk for childhood diseases. Incidence of ear infections and chicken pox are both elevated in children that experienced relatively higher fetal exposure than those experiencing lower exposures. More...


28 November. In a follow up to the CDC report on widespread phthalate contamination in Americans, the Environmental Working Group reports that many over-the-counter cosmetics sold in the United States contain dibutyl phthalate (DBP), an endocrine-disrupting reproductive toxicant. The report identifies specific products that are contaminated and alternatives that are not. According to EWG, major loopholes in federal law allow cosmetics manufacturers to put unlimited amounts of industrial chemicals like DBP into personal care products without any testing for adverse health effects. ABC coverage. CNN coverage.


2 November 2000. A study in New Hampshire finds hormone abnormalities in deformed frogs compared to normal frogs. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that deformities in this region are caused by hormone disruption, not parasites.More...


 

28 October 2000. The latest study of the cohort of boys exposed in the womb to PCBs because of cooking oil contamination in Taiwan finds significant degradation in sperm quality in exposed individuals compared to their unexposed counterparts. More...


24 October 2000. Time Magazine highlights the growing epidemic of early puberty in young girls. In an article by Michael Lemonick, Time examines both the causes and potential consequences of changes in the age of puberty in American girls. "It's as if an entire generation of girls had been put on hormonal fast-forward: shooting up, filling out, growing like Alice munching on the wrong side of the mushroom--and towering Mutt and Jeff-like over a generation of boys who seem, next to the girls, to be getting smaller every year." Of several possible causes, the article mentions changes in nutrition (particularly increases in obesity rates), exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, and hormonal stimulation from popular culture.


23 October 2000. Lycos ENS reports on a new study by the environmental health coalition, Health Care Without Harm, which concludes that premature infants and newborns treated in neonatal intensive care units are likely to be exposed to significant amounts di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a chemical suspected to cause reproductive and developmental problems in humans. DEHP is used in PVC medical products to make them soft and flexible. It is also used in other products, such as floorings, wall coverings, furniture, luggage and children's toys. A review of DEHP exposure from vinyl medical products conducted by the National Toxicology Program's Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction noted "serious concern" about DEHP exposure in critically ill infants, but added "that the benefits of [these] medical procedures can outweigh the risks." More...


23 October 2000. According to new research conducted in England, boys born to mothers eating a vegetarian diet during pregnancy are significantly more likely to have hypospadias (a structural defect of the penis). The authors consider three possible causes: that the diet exposes the developing male fetus to more phytoestrogens, that exposure to pesticide residues is greater in a vegetarian diet, or that the diet lacks key nutrients, but are unable to distinguish among them given the data presented in this study. More...


 

13 October 2000. A scientific panel convened by the US National Toxicology Program confirmed the validity of low-dose impacts of certain endocrine disrupting compounds, including nonylphenol, the phytoestrogen genistein and bisphenol A. For the controversial effects of bisphenol A, in particular, which have produced contradictory results, they noted in a preliminary report that "both the positive and negative study findings are credible and sound within the context of the experimental design." More...


6 October 2000. Writing in Science, Wilkening et al. describe movement by several different pollutants from Europe and Asia to the Americas. "The expected economic expansion around the Pacific Rim and in the rest of the world will deliver even more pollution unless preventative measures are taken. The risk of adverse effects to wildlife, ecosystems, climate, and human health throughout the Pacific region will increase. Even remote areas such as Arctic and alpine environments are threatened. Ocean productivity and the atmospheric energy budget over the North Pacific Ocean could be altered." More...


 

7 October 2000. The New Scientist reports on a study by Canadian researchers from Winnepeg who have discovered that dangerous bacteria thrive in the pesticide mixtures applied to fresh produce. The researchers found that the bacteria grow "best in the fungicide chlorothalonil, the weedkiller linuron and the insecticides permethrin and chlorpyrifos. According to the lead scientist in the research, numbers of bacteria "could increase one-thousandfold." "Salmonella, E. coli and Shigella grew best, particularly on chlorothalonil."


5 October 2000. Writing on MSNBC, Francesca Lyman examines the new CDC study that reveals unexpectedly high phthalate exposures in Americans. She conveys EPA scientist Earl Gray assessment that "there's ample cause for concern as the chemicals are reproductive toxins, with two, DBP and BzBP, particularly anti-androgenic, tending to block male hormones." Anti-androgens in the lab lower sperm count and feminize the male reproductive tract. A sidebar in Lyman's article provides a useful quick glance at some of the common consumer products that contain phthalates are are likely to be contributing to the exposures.


3 October 2000. In research conducted for the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation, scientists from Queens University, New York, trace the pathway of dioxin falling on arctic Canada back to its sources. Most comes from the US (mostly from municipal solid waste incinerators, backyard trash burning, cement kilns burning hazardous waste, medical waste incinerators, secondary copper smelters and iron sintering plants), with less from Canada and some from Mexico. The research team, led by Dr. Barry Commoner, employed state-of-the-art computer modeling tools to identify the dioxin sources. More...

The study was covered by several newsmedia, including Science News, The New Scientist, Environmental News Service, and Reuters. A summary can also be found in Trio, the newsletter of the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation.


1 October 2000. We've added a paper to the website that should have been here long ago. In August 1999, Jimmy Spearow et al. published a report in Science showing large strain differences among mice in their sensitivity to endocrine disruption. This is important because it demonstrates that studies of endocrine disruption must pay attention to environmental exposures and genetic backgrounds. It is also important because the least sensitive strain of mice, dramatically less vulnerable to endocrine disruption than other strains tested, is a strain (CD-1) widely used in toxicological testing. The insensitivity of this strain is most likely an inadvertent result of selective breeding for large litters. Assays of the potency of contaminants using this strain will have dramatically underestimated the impact of the contaminants on other strains.


September 2000. Researchers report that four different estrogen mimics interact additively when combined in mixtures. These experiments were designed to examine one of the great unknowns of toxicology: do experiments with single chemicals tell us anything about how contaminants behave in mixtures. This is important because virtually all of us are exposed to mixtures in the real world, not single chemicals, even though virtually all regulatory testing is based on experiments with single chemicals. More...


 

21 September 2000. USA Today reports that the US EPA is set to announce that it will "regulate power-plant emissions of mercury, a toxic pollutant that causes neurological damage in about 60,000 of the babies born each year in the USA."


 

20 September 2000. ENS reports that a new study published in Environmental Science and Technology describes the allergic potential of triphenyl phosphate, a flame retardant used commonly in computer monitors. Reactions to exposure "range from itching and nasal congestion to headaches."


19 September 2000. A report from the National Wildlife Federation documents significant mercury contamination falling in rain and snow over New England. Leading sources of mercury include incinerators, coal and oil fired power plants, and industrial sources that produce chlorine and caustic soda. Mercury's links to developmental disruption in humans is well-established. More...


19 September 2000. Work from Japan reported by BBC indicates that leptin, a hormone involved in weight control suppresses an appetite for sweets. More... The role of leptin in human weight homeostasis is unclear. Research examining "leptin disruption" should be a high priority, given the current world-wide epidemic of obesity.


19 September 2000. Here we go again. Peter Montague writes in Rachel's Environment and Health Weekly about new studies raising concerns about phthalates' threat to health. "As scientific and medical evidence accumulates, linking phthalates to reproductive disorders in humans, the chemical industry is digging in its heels for a 50-year fight. The industry produces a billion pounds of phthalates every year and has no intention of acknowledging that its products may cause birth defects, infertility or hormone disruption."


19 September 2000. According to the London Independent, Research in England reveals that one in three Britons suffers from some form of allergy. This contrasts sharply with conditions 30 years ago, when 15-20% were thought to be allergic. More... The reasons for this increase are likely to be many but are poorly understood. One popular theory cited by this article is that decreases in immune system challenges during early childhood (due to better health care) lead to a less-effective immune system later in life, but this theory fails to account for the fact that allergies, particularly asthma, are especially common in sectors of the public with the worst health care in early childhood. More on the immune system and endocrine disruption...


 

18 September 2000. In a news story covered by ENS, The Qikiqtaaluk Wildlife Board and the World Wildlife Fund report that a new survey reveals the impact of pollution on arctic wildlife. Hunters and elders from four Canadian arctic villages participated in the survey. Among them they have a combined hunting experience of about 800 years. "Hunters and elders from every community talked about abnormalities in at least one of the species they harvest regularly - caribou, seal, walrus, beluga, narwhal and polar bear. " "Almost half of the survey's participants said they see increasing abnormalities."


18 September 2000. The BBC reports that field trials begin today in Africa of an experimental vaccine against malaria. More... This is an important step in moving away from malaria vector control methods like DDT the use of which creates undesired public health side effects.


 

12 September 2000. A laboratory study from Japan published in the journal of US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences , Environmental Health Perspectives, shows in lab experiments with rats that bisphenol A moves quickly following oral ingestion into maternal blood and thence into the fetus. "the placenta does not act as a barrier to BPA." More...


September 2000. A study of the amniotic fluid of pregnant women in the Los Angeles basin reveals that one-third of mother's sampled were contaminated by DDE and HCH. PCB levels were at or beneath detection limits. The measurements were obtained from women during routine amniocentesis. More...


7 September 2000. A new analysis published by Shanna Swan, epidemiologist member of the National Academy of Sciences panel on hormonally-active agents in the environment, provides additional evidence that human sperm count has declined broadly in many places in the world. This new study extends the controversial paper that stimulated this debate in 1992 by doubling the sample size and using sophisticated multivariate tools for statistical analysis. In the end, the conclusion is remarkably consistent both with the original paper and a subsequent reanalysis of the first, smaller data set by Swan. More...

7 September 2000. A new report from scientists at Indiana University confirms that two ubiquitous endocrine disrupting compounds, DDT and HCH, have estrogenic impacts in mice at concentrations comparable to background levels experienced by people in many places. The authors write: "The extremely low levels required to cause statistically significant effects compared to control animals were unexpected. It is even more alarming that there is little difference between these levels and those that can be found in humans." More...


 

September 2000. National Environmental Trust, Physicians for Social Responsibility and the Learning Disabilities Association of America report estimate that 24 billion pounds of developmental toxicants may be released annually into the US. More...


 

6 September 2000. The BBC reports that endocrine disruption of fish is widespread in northern Europe, with confirmations obtained from 5 of 7 countries examined. Up to 100% of fish are affected in some river systems. A combination of industrial compounds and human urinary metabolites (from drugs) appear to be the cause. More...


1 September 2000. The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) releases data documenting widespread, significant phthalate contamination in the American public. Of particular concern is that for one of the seven phthalate compounds examined, a breakdown product of dibutyl phthalate (MBP), contamination is highest in women of child-bearing age. This phthalate has been shown to be a powerful reproductive toxicant in laboratory experiments with animals. More...

The CDC's research did not sample any children, whose exposure to phthalates has attracted significant health concerns, particularly because of phthalates' abundance in certain soft plastic toys and in medical equipment.


1 September 2000. The BBC reports that one percent of polar bears on the Arctic island or Svarlbard are hermaphroditic, and scientists studying this unnatural phenomenon believe it is due to endocrine disrupting chemicals. More...

 

August 2000. A case-control study in Ontario, Canada, of testicular cancer victims finds an increased risk of cancer associated with exposure to exogenous estrogens and also to higher maternal estrogens. More...


 

8 August 2000. Girls in Puerto Rico suffering from early breast development have almost 7-fold higher concentrations of the phthalate DEHP in their blood compared to girls developing normally. More...


 

July 2000. A scientific report in Toxicological Sciences indicates that some brominated flame retardants interfere powerfully with normal binding of thyroid hormones to transthyretin, a blood protein that transports the thyroid hormone thyroxine. This is important for three reasons.

  • Brominated flame retardants are in extraordinarily wide use in a wide variety of consumer products and industrial processes. Their widespread use has led to ubiquitous contamination. Flame retardant contamination has penetrated even the deep sea.
  • This report indicates that some brominated flame retardants are up to 10-times more powerful than the natural hormone, thyroxine, at binding to transthyretin. The authors suggest this may lead to an alteration of thyroid hormone levels.
  • Imbalances in thyroid hormone in the womb can impair brain development, leading to dramatic reductions in mental competency, including cretinism.
More...

22 August. Pataki Signs Law on Alerts for Pesticides. Kirk Johnson. New York Times.


11 August 2000. A news story in the San Francisco Examiner reveals that "big tobacco" corrupted the World Health Organization's review of EBDC pesticides. The report is reminiscent of chemical industry efforts to confuse the public and the media about endocrine disruption.


 

10 August 2000. Devra Lee Davis writes in the San Francisco Chronicle that "most cancer is made, not born."

 

July 2000. Researchers link low level dioxin exposure in the womb to reproductive deformities in female rats. Single doses of dioxin interfere with development of the vagina. More...

 

31 July 2000. A report in the New York Times calls into question the journalistic integrity of noted anti-environmental ABC 20/20 TV personality, John Stossel. An investigation by the Environmental Working Group reveals that Stossel fabricated data for a story he ran on 20/20 about organic food. More...

 

26 July 2000. Contamination of whale male meat is making it dangerous to eat. Other sources of protein from the ocean are also at risk. More...

24 July 2000. Mass die-off of salamanders near Jamestown, South Dakota. Cause unknown. More...

 

19 July 2000. A study suggests that children born to women who reached puberty early are more likely to develop asthma and allergies. While preliminary, the study provides an intriguing link between two health trends that may ultimately relate to the hormone experience of the fetus in the womb: the decreasing age of puberty and the increasing frequency of asthma. "It is possible that differences in the maternal estrogen environment, represented by varying age at menarche, could program the immune system of the fetus in a manner that could affect the (allergy) status later in life."
More...


 

17 July 2000. The National Toxicology Program's panel on health risks posed by phthalates has concluded that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) may indeed pose a health threat to the developing fetus and to children. This contradicts industry assertions (e.g., here) that the compound, found in plastics used in many products including cars, clothing, toys and medical equipment, is safe. More...

 

13 July 2000. US undermines POPs treaty. Charlie Cray. Rachel's Environment and Health Weekly.

 

13 July 2000. European Union bans the organochlorine pesticide lindane from most uses. More...

 

13 July 2000. A study in the New England Journal of Medicine indicates that genes are less important in causing cancer than generally perceived. The vast majority of cancers are a result of environmental and behavioral factors, and of interactions of environment with genes. Cancers attributable exclusively to genetics are much less frequent.

Related editorial in the New England Journal of Medicine...
Press coverage ...

 

12 July 2000. Myers speaks to the Planned Parenthood Political Academy in Washington, DC. "Our current approach to the regulation of chemicals permits chemical trespass in the most intimate environment of all, a mother's womb, with no information about safety. It threatens to create a world in which impaired fertility is common and in which, as a result, only the rich can afford the medical interventions that allow them to reproduce." More...

 

10 July 2000. The European Parliament proposes a wide ban on phthalates used in children's plastic toys. More...

 

4 July 2000. Researchers report that whale and dolphin meat sold in Japan for human consumption is contaminated heavily by dioxin. More...

 

1 July 2000. J.P. Myers writes that Monsanto, historically one of the largest producers of PCBs, should accept its responsibilities for PCB cleanup before the public should accept Monsanto's reassurances about the safety of biotech agricultural products.

 

June 2000. The Royal Society of the UK issues a scientific assessment of endocrine disruption. It concludes that while many questions about endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) cannot be answered yet and that research must continue to resolve uncertainties, "policy makers must appreciate that the concerns of the public already have some foundation." "Despite the uncertainty, it is prudent to minimize exposure of humans, especially pregnant women, to EDCs." More...

 

19 June 2000. The Japanese Economic Newswire reports on a study from Japan showing unexpectedly high levels of PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in human breast milk. PBDEs are widely used as flame retardants in plastic. More...  An earlier study had suggested PBDE contamination is ubiquitous, even reaching deep sea life in the oceans.

 

17 June 2000. Excreted drugs: something looks fishy. Janet Raloff summarizes in Science News a series of reports on hormonally active drugs that become water pollutants. The bottom line is that a significant fraction of drugs taken by people are excreted still in biologically active form. Many then remain active through sewage treatment processes and then wind up affecting fish living downstream.

 

July 2000: Concentrations of PCB and PCB-related contaminants are up to 70x higher in Inuit residents of far northern Canada than in blood samples taken from southern Canada. More...


 

16 June 2000: US News and World Report runs a strong cover article on contamination risks to kids' neurological development. "Chemicals in the environment come under scrutiny as the number of childhood learning problems soars." More...


 

12 June 2000: U.S. EPA makes its draft reassessment of dioxin available on the web for public comment.


 

8 June 2000: Consumers Union releases a report demonstrating that pesticide residues remain too high in fruits and vegetables sold in the United States. 20 specific chemicals are responsible for the lion's share of residues found in foods. More...

8 June 2000: More than 10,000 seals die in the Caspian Sea. While no causation has been established, analyses reveal heavy contamination by pesticides and oil wastes. This is reminiscent of seal die-offs in the Baltic Sea, in which the proximate cause was a virus but contamination played a key role by undermining disease resistance. More...


 

May 2000. Independent research confirms the validity of low dose impacts of bisphenol A. Industry spokespeople had mounted an aggressive campaign to paint research by Dr. Fred vom Saal (Univ. Missouri, Columbia) as impossible to replicate and therefore invalid. A new publication by Dr. Chhanda Gupta (School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh), refutes that claim. More...

May 2000. Scientists report remarkably low sperm counts from young men in Denmark. More than 40% had counts below 40 million per ml, a level at which reproductive impairment begins to be detectable. More...

May 2000. Italian researchers report that fathers exposed to dioxin by an industrial accident in Seveso, Italy, are less likely to sire male offspring as a result of dioxin exposure. More...

13 May 2000: The Environmental Working Group discovered efforts by a coalition of pesticide companies and trade groups, working behind the scenes with Rep. Richard Pombo (R-CA), to roll back the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. The proposed legislation would make it dramatically more difficult to remove current-use pesticides found to be dangerous or to halt sales of new compounds. The Pombo bill would essentially reverse the burden of proof for extra protections for children. The EPA would be required to provide detailed justification for child-specific safety margins that would rarely be available given the paucity of actual data on health impacts. The standards to bring on new products would be lowered dramatically.

9 May 2000: The World Wide Fund for Nature-UK issues a report on bisphenol A that reviews the chemical's endocrine disrupting effects and calls for removing it from the marketplace.

2 May 2000: Myers testifies by invitation before the House Appropriations Committee Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services and Education

A Dutch study indicates that PCB and dioxin contamination in breast milk weakens infants' immune systems. Children raised on breast milk with elevated contamination levels suffered significantly more childhood diseases than those raised on less contaminated milk.

 

In May 2000, Boston PSR and Clean Water Fund released a report, In Harms Way, about neurological toxins as threats to childhood development, particularly learning disabilities, and steps parents can take to minimize those risks. They report on an epidemic of developmental, learning, and behavioral disabilities affecting America's children today. Nearly 12 million children (17%) in the United States under age 18 suffer from one or more learning, developmental, or behavioral disabilities. Scientific research points to contaminantion in the womb as a significant contributor to these problems. More...

In May 2000, researchers in California report that autism can be detected at birth and that it is produced by developmental errors resulting either from genetic problems or fetal contamination. In April 2000, federal researchers confirmed that one town in New Jersey suffers from unusually high rates of autism. More...

4 April 2000. High altitude alpine lakes in the Alps are contaminated by DDT being used for malaria control in the tropics. More...

 

March 2000. A study of Inuit children in arctic Canada reveals a positive association between organochlorine exposure and the likelihood of inner ear infections in the first year of life. OC exposure of these children is a result of the mother's consumption of contaminated traditional foods. Exposure occurs in the womb and via lactation. More...

 

A study by Spanish scientists confirms leaching of biologically-relevant amounts of bisphenol-A from composites and sealants used in dentistry. Whether the amounts cause harm to human health is not resolved. For those parents who would prefer to see experiments in the lab instead of kid's mouths, these results raise a note of caution.
Pulgar et al. 2000. Determination of Bisphenol A and Related Aromatic Compounds Released from Bis-GMA-Based Composites and Sealants by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 108: 21-27.

 

March 2000: Exposure in the egg to DDT can cause complete sex reversal in a species of fish. Male-to-female reversal in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes can be complete, permanent, and functional after a onetime embryonic exposure to the contaminant. Exposed fish that carry chromosomes typical for males of this species have fully functional oviducts and bear fertile offspring. More...

 

Documentation of extensive contamination of whale meat in Japanese markets may lead to a dramatic reduction in whale meat consumption within Japan. Reported by the London Independent. 9 January 1999.


The Yokohama Consensus Statement: a new consensus statement from Japan. December 1999. (also in Japanese).

 

 

 

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