common industrial chemical used to produce Teflon might pose health
risks for young girls and women of childbearing age, an internal
report by the Environmental Protection Agency has found.
scientists are concerned because the chemical, ammonium perfluorooctanoate,
accumulates in human blood and demonstrates toxic properties. In
September, the agency initiated a priority review under the Toxic
Substances Control Act, which can be invoked to ban chemicals that
pose significant risk of cancer, gene mutations or health defects.
draft report assesses current scientific work, including studies
by various companies.
chemical, abbreviated in scientific literature as PFOA, is also
known as C-8 at the DuPont Company, which manufactures it.
assessing the risks of the chemical, the draft report used a ratio
known as the margin of exposure, under which anything lower than
100 could be cause for serious concern.
the draft report on C-8, this average ratio ranged from 66 to 80
for women and girls. For men and boys, the averages ranged from
9,000 to 11,000. The gender difference is notable because studies
done on human exposure have focused on industrial workers, the vast
majority of whom are male.
have also shown that C-8 causes liver damage in rats. Robert Rickard,
a DuPont toxicologist, said those studies were not relevant to humans
because of the way the chemical worked.
high dosages, C-8 has also shown development and reproductive harm
in rats. DuPont contends that at lower levels they caused no effect.
Studies of C-8 exposure on humans have not been conclusive, and
the E.P.A. report urged further study.
are in full cooperation with the E.P.A. on the study on this product,"
said Irvin Lipp, a spokesman for DuPont.
chemical, which is part of a family known as perfluorochemicals,
plays a key role in materials that are widely used in the aerospace,
transportation and electronics industries.
chemical related to C-8, used in the fabric protector Scotchgard,
was voluntarily pulled from production by the 3M company in 2000
under pressure from the E.P.A. Since then, 3M has ceased production
of perfluorochemicals. DuPont, which had been a longtime customer
of 3M's C-8, began producing it in Fayetteville, N.C., and uses
it in a number of factories around the country.
have shown that C-8 accumulates in the blood of workers and in the
general population because it takes a long time to break down. The
highest levels found among general populations are comparable to
the lowest levels found among workers.
is not known how the general population is exposed to C-8. But DuPont
has started a World Wide Web site, c8inform.com, to address concerns
about the presence of C-8 in an area's drinking water. A class-action
lawsuit has been filed in West Virginia against DuPont contending
that C-8 is harmful to the environment and human health, an accusation
the company disputes.
E.P.A. report, which is dated March 17, is labeled an "internal
deliberative draft" and "not subject to" the Freedom
of Information Act. The report was first obtained by Inside EPA,
a newsletter that monitors federal environmental policy, and was
released yesterday by the Environmental Working Group, a group that
advocates increased regulation of chemicals.
said the report was out of date and had not been not peer-reviewed.
"It was a leaked document," Mr. Lipp, the DuPont spokesman,
said. "It was stolen."
officials said they were not ready to make a judgment about the
chemicals. "We are concerned enough about it to take it to
the next step, because we don't know enough about the situation,"
said Joe Martyak, a spokesman for the agency.