Our Stolen Futurea book by Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers






Gray, LE, J Ostby, E Monosson and WR Kelce. 1999. Environmental antiandrogens: low doses of the fungicide vinclozolin alter sexual differentiation of the male rat. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15: 48-64.

Gray et al. describe experiments examining the impact of an anti-androgen on sexual development in male rats. Gray et al. note that vinclozolin is not the only synthetic anti-androgen. Anti-androgenic activity has been reported for three other pesticides: p,p'-DDE (a metabolite of DDT), procymidone and linuron. Several other natural and synthetic estrogens bind to the androgen receptor, including estradiol, DES and an active metabolite of methoxychlor. Several phthalates (e.g., DBP and DEHP have also been shown to produce antiandrogenic effects. More...


  Vonier, PM, D. DA Crain, JA McLachlan, LJ Guillette, Jr., and SF Arnold. 1996. Interaction of Environmental Chemicals with the Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors from the Oviduct of the American Alligator. Environmental Health Perspectives 104:1318-1322

In a study of alligator hormone receptors, Vonier et al. report that alachlor, endosulfan sulfate and kepone, as well as one DDT metabolite (DDOH), strongly inhibit binding of synthetic progesterone with the alligator progesterone receptor. These same chemicals also competed for binding at the estrogen receptor. This is the first evidence of competitive binding affinity by a compound to two distinct hormone receptors, revealing the promiscuity and complexity of chemical interaction with hormone receptors. This paper also documents synergistic interactions among contaminants affecting the alligator estrogen receptor.



Harmon, MA, MF Boehm, RA Harmon and DJ Mangelsdorf. 1995. Activation of mammalian retinoid X receptors by the insect growth regulator methoprene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 92:6157-6160

Harmon et al. report that methoprene and its metabolic derivatives interact with the mammalian retinoid X receptors and thereby stimulate gene transcription in vertebrates. Methoprene, an insect growth regulator, is used in agriculture and domestic settings as a pesticide because of its ability to prevent insect metamorphosis from larval to adult life stages. "Thus a pesticide that mimics the action of juvenile hormone in insects can also activate a mammalian retinoid-responsive pathway." Methoprene is now applied, among domestic and agricultural settings, to household carpets for flea control.


  Kovacevic, R, M Vojinovic-Miloradov, I Teodorovic and S Andric. 1995. Effect of PCBs on Androgen Production by Suspension of Adult Cells in vitro Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 52(6): 595-597

Kovacevic et al. examine the effects of several PCB congeners on androgen production by Leydig cells extracted from adult rat testis. PCBs inhibited androgen production significantly, but had no effect on progesterone production. However, progesterone supported testosterone production was inhibited significantly. The exact mechanism by which PCB inhibits microsomal enzymes involved in progesterone to testosterone biochemical pathway remains unclear.





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