Our Stolen Futurea book by Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers



The womb mate effect. For a detailed description, see Chapter 3 in Our Stolen Future, or examine the original scientific literature (references below)

If it's after breakfast, think about the uterus of a pregnant mouse (below).



The fetuses (up to 12) are arranged around the uterus one by one.



Each of them has either one or two neighbors, depending upon where they are in the womb. Those neighbors can be either male, or female.

Fred vom Saal discovered that each fetus creates a hormonal gradient around itself, with the nature of the gradient determined by the sex of the fetus. Those gradients affect their neighbors. Thus even within the same womb, maturing fetuses experience slight differences in their hormonal experience. For example, a female fetus with a female on each side (what vom Saal calls a Zero-Male female, or 0M, female; see diagram at right) experiences slightly more estrogen in the womb than a Two-Male (2M) female.

vom Saal and others have shown that these slight differences in fetal hormone experience have profound, life-long consequences for the mouse as it matures. 2M females, for example, once they reach adulthood are more aggressive than 0M females, and less attractive to males. 0M females mature faster than 2M females. 0M males have increased sexual activity compared to 2M males and are more likely to attack and kill baby mice when given the opportunity. In contrast, 2M males are more like females in parenting behavior than are 0M males.

What is astonishing about these results is how small the differences in fetal hormone experience actually are. 0M vs 2M females differ in experience by only 35 parts per trillion of estradiol (a form of estrogen) and 1 part per billion testosterone. vom Saal's evidence on the impact of these low level variations gave the first hints of the possibility that endocrine disrupting chemicals might also work at low exposure levels.



vom Saal, F, and F. Bronson. 1980. Sexual characteristics of adult female mice are correlated with their blood testosterone levels during prenatal development. Science 208:597-99.

vom Saal, F. 1984. The intrauterine position phenomenon: effects on physiology, aggressive behavior and population dynamics in house mice. in Biological Perspectives on Aggression, K. Flannelly, R. Blanchard and D. Blanchard (eds). Progress in Clinical Biology Research 169:135-179.

vom Saal, F., and J Vandenbergh. 1987. Regulation of puberty and its consequences on population dynamics of mice. American Zoologist 27:891-98.

vom Saal, F. 1989. Sexual differentiation in litter bearing mammals: influence of sex of adjacent fetuses in utero. Journal of Animal Science 67:1824-40.


  Back to top  




OSF Home
 About this website
Book Basics
  Synopsis & excerpts
  The bottom line
  Key points
  The big challenge
  Chemicals implicated
  The controversy
New Science
  Broad trends
  Basic mechanisms
  Brain & behavior
  Disease resistance
  Human impacts
  Low dose effects
  Mixtures and synergy
  Ubiquity of exposure
  Natural vs. synthetic
  New exposures
  Wildlife impacts
Recent Important    Results
Myths vs. Reality
Useful Links
Important Events
Important Books
Other Sources
Other Languages
About the Authors
Talk to us: email